Sectoral Scope of Validation and Verification

Sectoral
scope

Technical
area

Typical group of activities and GHG emissions

emissions Technical knowledge required

SS 1: Energy industries (renewable/non-renewable sources)

TA 1.1. Thermal energy generation

Typical activities: - Power and heat generation from non-renewable energy sources and biomass, including construction of new plants, capacity increases, plant retrofitting, energy efficiency and fuel switching; - District heating systems and power grids, including construction of new grids and systems, extension of existing grids and systems and interconnection of grids and systems. Typical GHG emissions: - CO2 emissions from fuel combustion for power and heat generation; - Upstream emissions from fuel extraction, transport and processing.

- Methods for the evaluation of mass and energy flows in energy generation activities, such as direct monitoring, mass and energy balances and use of emission factors; - Characteristics of combustion devices, heat plants and power plants, such as installed capacity, fuel type, thermal efficiency and plant type; - Operation of electrical power grids, dispatch of power plants and evaluation of GHG emissions from power grids by means of dispatch analysis; - Methods for the evaluation of upstream GHG emissions related to fuel use, such as the use of standard GHG emission factors.

TA 1.2. Renewables

Typical activities: - Power and heat generation from renewable energy sources, including construction of new plants, capacity increases, plant retrofitting, energy efficiency and fuel switching. Typical GHG emissions: - CO2 emissions from fuel combustion for power and heat generation; - CO2 and CH4 emissions from renewable energy technologies.

- Methods for the evaluation of mass and energy flows in energy generation activities, such as direct monitoring, mass and energy balances and use of emission factors; - Characteristics of renewable electrical power plants, such as installed capacity, load factor, intermittency of operation, auxiliary fuel use and GHG emissions (e.g. GHG emissions from hydropower plant reservoirs, geothermal reservoirs, etc.); - Operation of electrical power grids, dispatch of power plants and evaluation of GHG emissions from power grids by means of dispatch analysis.

SS 2: Energy distribution

TA 2.1. Energy distribution

Typical activities: - Energy efficiency measures in power transmission and distribution. Typical GHG emissions: - CO2 emissions from fuel combustion for power and heat generation.

- Energy efficiency measures in transmission and distribution power systems and evaluation of energy savings; - Energy efficiency measures involving transformers and evaluation of energy savings; - Transmission of power in AC and DC systems and associated energy losses; - Upgrading of transmission voltage in transmission and distribution power systems.

SS 3: Energy demand

TA 3.1. Energy demand

Typical activities: - Demand-side energy efficiency measures in diverse sectors, such as pumping systems, lighting systems, household appliances and buildings. Typical GHG emission: - CO2 emissions from fuel combustion (commercial and non-commercial) for power and heat generation.

- Methods for the evaluation of mass and energy flows in demand-side energy use, such as direct monitoring, mass and energy balances, energy use factors and energy efficiency factors.

SS 4: Manufacturing industries

TA 4.1. Cement and lime production

Typical activities: - Cement production, in particular fuel switching and use of alternative raw materials. Typical emissions: - GHG emissions from cement production, such as those from calcination of carbonated raw materials.

- Unit operations in cement and lime production and calcination of raw materials; - Potential raw materials and fuels for the production of cement and lime, such as limestone, conventional kiln fuels, dolomite, magnesite and alternative kiln fuels; - Emissions, mass and energy balances in cement and lime production and calcination of raw materials; - Methods to determine the carbonate content of raw materials.

SS 6: Construction

TA 6.1. Construction

This sectoral scope covers activities related to construction of buildings, such as using less GHG intensive construction techniques and materials. This does not cover energy efficiency in buildings. Those types of activities are covered under the new sectoral scope 7-Energy Demand. No methodology has been approved so far and the sectoral technical knowledge beside is only indicative.

- Construction of buildings and foundations, load bearing structures and construction material requirement for different types of structure; - GHG emission sources, in particular CO2 emissions, in production and transportation of construction material; - Knowledge of building and construction codes and best practices within regions to determine the baseline and baseline emissions.

SS 9: Metal production

TA 9.1. Aluminium and magnesium production

Typical activities: - Management of PFC emissions in aluminium production. Typical GHG emissions: - PFC emissions; - Emissions of SF6 and other cover gases; - CO2 emissions from fuel combustion for power and heat generation.

- Unit operations in metallurgy; - Emissions, mass and energy balances in metallurgy; - Evaluation of specific energy consumption of furnaces and kilns based on technical data, historical values and performance tests; - Anode effects, PFC emissions and mitigation measures to reduce PFC emissions in primary aluminium smelting facilities or use of cover gases, such as SF6, fluorinated gases and SO2, in magnesium casting and alloying processes.

TA 9.2. Iron, steel and Ferro-alloy production

Typical activities: - Management of CO2 emissions in iron production; - Waste gas recovery and use in iron and steel production. Typical GHG emissions: - CO2 emissions in iron reduction; - CO2 emissions from fuel combustion for power and heat generation.

- Unit operations in metallurgy; - Emissions, mass and energy balances in metallurgy; - Evaluation of specific energy consumption of furnaces and kilns based on technical data, historical values and performance tests; - Energy recovery and utilization in steel, iron and ferro-alloy facilities, including blast furnace gas, coke oven gas, and converter gas.

SS 10: Fugitive emissions from fuels (solid, oil and gas)

TA 10.1. Fugitive emissions from oil and gas

Typical activities: - Management of associated gas and waste gas in oil and gas facilities. Typical GHG emissions: - CH4 emissions from associated gas and waste gas.

- Unit operations in the oil and gas industries; - Dynamics of oil and gas reservoirs, enhanced oil recovery, gas-lifting techniques and production of associated gas; - Emissions, mass and energy balances in oil and gas operations; - Potential uses, flaring and venting of waste streams and associated gas in the oil and gas industries.

SS 13: Waste handling and disposal

TA 13.1. Solid waste and wastewater

Typical activities: - Solid waste disposal in landfills; - Alternative methods of solid waste management, such as gasification, incineration, recycling and production of refuse derived fuel; - Wastewater treatment systems; - Biogas management . Typical GHG emissions: - CH4 emissions from the anaerobic decay of organic matter contained in solid waste and wastewater.

- Biomass decay under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and the production of biogas; - Types of solid waste and wastewater, their composition, characterization parameters and impact of composition on decay rates and GHG emissions; - Use of decay models and standard GHG emission factors in the estimation of GHG emissions from solid waste decay and solid waste disposal sites. - Alternative methods for disposal, management and treatment of waste.

TA 13.2. Manure

Typical activities: - Manure management systems; - Biogas management. Typical GHG emissions: - CH4 emissions from the anaerobic decay of organic matter contained in manure.

- Biomass decay under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and the production of biogas; - Types of manure, their composition, characterization parameters and impact of composition on decay rates and GHG emissions; - Types of livestock, dietary factors and their impact on manure generation; - Use of decay models and standard GHG emission factors in the estimation of GHG emissions from manure management systems.